All of the queries up until this point have been useful with the exception of one major limitation – that is, you’ve been selecting from only one table at a time with your SELECT statement. It is time to introduce you to one of the most beneficial features of SQL & relational database systems – the “Join“. To put it simply, the “Join” makes relational database systems “relational”.
Joins allow you to link data from two or more tables together into a single query result–from one single SELECT statement.
A “Join” can be recognized in a SQL SELECT statement if it has more than one table after the FROM keyword.
SELECT "list-of-columns" FROM table1,table2 WHERE "search-condition(s)"
Joins can be explained easier by demonstrating what would happen if you worked with one table only, and didn’t have the ability to use “joins”. This single table database is also sometimes referred to as a “flat table”. Let’s say you have a one-table database that is used to keep track of all of your customers and what they purchase from your store:
Every time a new row is inserted into the table, all columns will be be updated, thus resulting in unnecessary “redundant data”. For example, every time Wolfgang Schultz purchases something, the following rows will be inserted into the table:
|10982||Wolfgang||Schultz||300 N. 1st Ave||Yuma||AZ||85002||032299||snowboard||45.00|
|10982||Wolfgang||Schultz||300 N. 1st Ave||Yuma||AZ||85002||082899||snow shovel||35.00|
|10982||Wolfgang||Schultz||300 N. 1st Ave||Yuma||AZ||85002||091199||gloves||15.00|
|10982||Wolfgang||Schultz||300 N. 1st Ave||Yuma||AZ||85002||100999||lantern||35.00|
|10982||Wolfgang||Schultz||300 N. 1st Ave||Yuma||AZ||85002||022900||tent||85.00|
An ideal database would have two tables:
- One for keeping track of your customers
- And the other to keep track of what they purchase:
Now, whenever a purchase is made from a repeating customer, the 2nd table, “Purchases” only needs to be updated! We’ve just eliminated useless redundant data, that is, we’ve just normalized this database!
Notice how each of the tables have a common “customer_number” column. This column, which contains the unique customer number will be used to JOIN the two tables. Using the two new tables, let’s say you would like to select the customer’s name, and items they’ve purchased. Here is an example of a join statement to accomplish this:
SELECT customer_info.firstname, customer_info.lastname, purchases.item FROM customer_info, purchases WHERE customer_info.customer_number = purchases.customer_number;
This particular “Join” is known as an “Inner Join” or “Equijoin”. This is the most common type of “Join” that you will see or use.
Notice that each of the columns are always preceded by the table name and a period. This isn’t always required, however, it IS good practice so that you wont confuse which columns go with what tables. It is required if the name column names are the same between the two tables. I recommend preceding all of your columns with the table names when using joins.
Note: The syntax described above will work with most Database Systems -including the one with this tutorial. However, in the event that this doesn’t work with yours, please check your specific database documentation.
Although the above will probably work, here is the ANSI SQL-92 syntax specification for an Inner Join using the preceding statement above that you might want to try:
SELECT customer_info.firstname, customer_info.lastname, purchases.item FROM customer_info INNER JOIN purchases ON customer_info.customer_number = purchases.customer_number;
SELECT employee_info.employeeid, employee_info.lastname, employee_sales.comission FROM employee_info, employee_sales WHERE employee_info.employeeid = employee_sales.employeeid;
This statement will select the employeeid, lastname (from the employee_info table), and the comission value (from the employee_sales table) for all of the rows where the employeeid in the employee_info table matches the employeeid in the employee_sales table.
|Use these tables for the exercises|
- Write a query using a join to determine which items were ordered by each of the customers in the customers table. Select the customerid, firstname, lastname, order_date, item, and price for everything each customer purchased in the items_ordered table.
SELECT customers.customerid, customers.firstname, customers.lastname, items_ordered.order_date, items_ordered.item, items_ordered.price FROM customers, items_ordered WHERE customers.customerid = items_ordered.customerid;
- Repeat exercise #1, however display the results sorted by state in descending order.
SELECT customers.customerid, customers.firstname, customers.state, items_ordered.item FROM customers, items_ordered WHERE customers.customerid = items_ordered.customerid ORDER BY customers.state DESC;
Results will be displayed here